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Physics & Optical Engineering: Standards

Library and web resources related to Physics and Applied Optics.

Welcome

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How to access standards during the 2022 academic year

The Logan Library realizes that students may need a copy of a specific standard for their design project. 

If a professor needs a specific standard for a class, please e-mail the exact standard title, standard number, and standard publication year to Bernadette Ewen and Amy Harshbarger.

If a design team needs a specific standard for a design team project, please do the following:

1) One student from the design team needs to send the following to the professor for which the standard is required:

* The exact standard title, standard number, and standard publication year for the unique standard required to complete their class project.

2) The professor of the class, for which the standard is required, needs to approve the purchase of the standard and send the following to the Bernadette Ewen and Amy Harshbarger:

* The exact standard title, standard number, and standard publication year of the unique standard required to complete the team's class project.

3) The Logan Library will purchase one copy of a needed standard and notify the student when the standard is available for check out at the Logan Library's circulation desk.

If the loan period for borrowing a standard from the Logan Library needs to be adjusted, these are the loan period times often granted by library staff members:

1 day in library use – faculty 

member places a standard on 

reserve for in library use only

7 days - faculty member borrows 

standard to use outside the 

library in a class or lab

4 weeks – student borrows a 

standard that was purchased 

specifically for his/her senior 

design team’s project to use 

outside of the library

4 weeks – faculty or staff 

member borrows a standard 

that is not currently being 

used by a design team 

4)  The student that receives the standard is responsible for ensuring that physical copy of the standard is returned to the Logan Library by the date due. 

Note: All standards checked 

out to seniors must be returned 

to the Logan Library no later 

than two weeks before they 

graduate.

Standards That We Lease

Rose-Hulman has unlimited access to the following standards via TechStreet until April 15, 2022:

ASTM D6307-19

ISO 12233:2017

ISO 13458:2016

ISO 14971:2019

ISO 81060-1:2007

ISO 81060-2:2018

Standards That We Own

Standards in the Library Catalog

To identify the Individual standards that have been purchased by the Logan Library, access the library catalog, click on the Advanced Search tab, pull down the All Fields menu to Title of Collection, type standards in the search box, and click on search.  You may browse the titles or further refine your search. If you are searching for a specific standard in the library catalog, type the standard number in the All Fields search box as a Keyword. For example, search for ISO 14971.

 

ASTM and SAE Ground Vehicle Standards

A complete set of ASTM International Standards for the year 2015 are available on the Rose-Hulman end user computer, on the main floor of the Logan Library, near the reference desk. Since the ASTM Website offers a better search interface for standards, you may want to do your standards search on the website and then access the full text of the standard at the end user computer by using the standard number.  Keep in mind that the ASTM website will identify the most updated version of standards. The standards, which are available on the library's end user computer outside of the large conference room, were last updated in October 2015.

A complete set of the SAE Ground Vehicle Standards (“J Standards”) are also available on the library's end user computer outside of the large conference room.

 

Standards Not Currently Available at Rose-Hulman

Standards not currently available at Rose-Hulman can be requested via Interlibrary Loan.  Lending libraries sometimes lend standards that were published prior to 2005. If a standard is not available via Interlibrary Loan and a quote can be obtained by the Logan Library, it will be provided to the Rose-Hulman requestor. Any standard purchased by the Logan Library must be approved by the professor of the class for which the standard is required and by the library director.

Standards

What are standards?

Standards are published documents created to ensure the reliability of the materials, products, methods, and/or services.  They establish requirements, specifications, guidelines, characteristics, and/or procedures designed. Typically, they are developed through a consensus process and approved by various national and international agencies, professional societies, or industry organizations. Standards are the minimally accepted professional practice and/or quality that must be observed.

How are standards developed?

The following are a few examples of how standards organizations develop their standards.

ISO - "Like a symphony, it takes a lot of people working together to develop a standard. ISO’s role is similar to that of a conductor, while the orchestra is made up of independent technical experts nominated by our members. The experts form a technical committee that is responsible for a specific subject area. They begin the process with the development of a draft that meets a specific market need. This is then shared for commenting and further discussion. The voting process is the key to consensus. If that’s achieved then the draft is on its way to becoming an ISO standard. If agreement isn’t reached then the draft will be modified further, and voted on again. From first proposal to final publication, developing a standard usually takes about 3 years." - https://www.iso.org/developing-standards.html

ASTM - "A full consensus standard is developed by a cross-section of stakeholders with an interest in its use. When there is a need for new standards, requests can come from trade associations, government agencies, and professional societies that do not create their own standards; or manufacturers, consumer groups, and even individuals. The request is presented to an ASTM technical committee and the process of standards development begins." - https://www.astm.org/studentmember/StandardsProcess.html

How long are standards active?

The time frame in which a standard remains active varies based on the standards organization's review and revision processes.

Who uses standards?

Small businesses, national and international businesses, governments, engineers, scientists, architects, designers, students, etc.

Why are standards important?

  • Enhance health, safety and quality of life                                           
  • Improve performance
  • Reduce risk
  • Become more sustainable
  • Facilitate global trade and market access
  • Help produce efficient and effective products
  • Reduce costs, improve supplier relations
  • Guide business communications and marketing
  • Advance innovation and new technologies
  • Support regulatory goals and compliance
  • Transfer technology to the marketplace
  • Make modern conveniences possible

What are some of the risks of not identifying and not complying with relevant current standards?

  • Inability to sell completed product
  • Damage relationship with suppliers
  • Interoperability issues
  • Product not approved by regulators
  • Possible governmental sanctions, fine, and/or reprimands
  • Possible civil lawsuits
  • Possible criminal lawsuits
  • Loss of revenue
  • Accidents
  • Illness
  • Property damage
  • Loss of professional license
  • Loss of or inability to obtain insurance

What types of standards exist?

The following are a few examples of how different standards granting organizations publish different types of standards. 

  • ANSI: basic, design, management systems, process, product, test methods, and others
  • ASTM: specification, test method, terminology, practice, guide
  • ISO: product, test methods, codes of practice, guideline, management systems

What are the major sources of standards?

While the US tends to have a stakeholder-driven development process, the rest of the world tends to have a politically-drive, government-based, standards development process.  In the US there are hundreds of decentralized, non-government standards development organizations active.  ANSI is the US's official coordinator of these organizations.

How are standards named?

Standards are named using the acronym of the standard granting organization, the number of the standard, and the year the standard was issued.

  • ASCE/SEI 7-16
  • ASTM F963-17
  • ISO 13485:2016

Sources:

American National Standards Institute. “An Introduction to Standards.” American National Standards Institute, 2010. Web. 9 Dec 2013. 

ASTM International. “ASTM Standards and You:  The Role of Standards in Our Everyday Lives.” ASTM International. Web. 11 Jul 2014. <<http://www.astm.org/studentmember/Learning_Modules.html>>.

IEEE Standards Association. "Develop Standards." IEEE Standards Association. Web. 5 Sep 2014. <<http://standards.ieee.org/develop/overview.html>>.

International Organization for Standardization. "Standards." International Organization for Standardization. Web. 14 Jul 2014. <<http://www.iso.org/iso/home/standards.htm>>.

 

 

Standards: Granting Organizations, Search Engines, and Vendors

Selected Standards Granting Organizations

  • ACI:  American Concrete Institute (ACI)
  • AIAA:  American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA)
  • AIA and NAS:  Aerospace Industries Association (AIA) and National Aerospace Standards (NAS)
  • ANSI:  American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
  • ASABE:  American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE)
  • ASCE:  American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)
  • ASHRAE:  American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)
  • AASHTO:  American Association of State Highway and Transportation Official (AASHTO)
  • ASME:  American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
  • ASQ:  American Society for Quality (ASQ)
  • ASTM:  formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
  • AWS:  American Welding Society (AWS)
  • BIFMA:  Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturers Association (BIFMA)
  • BSI:  British Standards Institution (BSI)
  • CGSB:  Canadian General Standards Board (CGSB)
  • CSA: Canadian Standards Association (CSA)
  • DOE-TSP:  U.S. Department of Energy Technical Standards Program (DOE-TSP)
  • ICC:  International Code Council (ICC)
  • IEC:  International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)
  • IEEE-SA:  Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standards Association (IEEE-SA)
  • ETSI:  European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI)
  • ISO:  International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
  • ITU:  International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
  • LIA:  Laser Institute of America in conjunction (LIA)
  • NACE:  National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE)
  • NEMA:  National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA)
  • NFPA:  National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
  • NISO:  National Information Standards Organization (NISO)
  • NIST: National Institute of Standards and Technology, U.S. Department of Commerce (NIST)
  • NTSP:  National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Technical Standards Program (NTSP)
  • OSHA:  U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA)
  • SAE International: Society of Automotive Engineers International (SAE)
  • TAPPI:  Technological Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI)
  • TIA:  Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA)
  • UL:  Underwriters Laboratories (UL)

Selected Standards Search Engines and Vendors

  • AIAA:  American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA)
  • ACI:  American Concrete Institute (ACI)
  • ANSI Standards Store: American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
  • ASCE:  American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)
  • ASHRAE Store: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)
  • ASME:  American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
  • ASQ:  American Society for Quality (ASQ)
  • AssistDocs:  U.S. Department of Defense (DoD)
  • Assist-Quick Search: U.S. Department of Defense (DoD)
  • ASTM:  formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
  • Document Center
  • IEC:  International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)
  • IEEE-SA:  Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standards Association (IEEE-SA)
  • IHS Markit Standards
  • ISO:  International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
  • ITU:  International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
  • NFPA:  National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
  • NIST: National Institute of Standards and Technology, U.S. Department of Commerce (NIST)
  • SAE International:  Society of Automotive Engineers International (SAE)
  • TAPPI:  Technological Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI)
  • TechStreet – Technical Information Superstore
  • UL Catalog of Standards:  Underwriters Laboratories (UL)

Standards Training Module

To access the standards training module:

Click Here 

What is the difference between a standard and other types of guidance documents?

Standard - A standard is a technical publication created to ensure the reliability of the materials, products, methods, and/or services.  They establish the technical requirements, specifications, guidelines, characteristics, and/or procedures designed. Standards are recommend set of design tolerances, practices, operations, manufacturing methods, or uses of equipment within a specified environment.  Standards are not mandatory by law, unless they are adopted as a code or regulation.

Code - A code is a type of standard that is adopted and enforced by one or more governmental agencies. Unlike a general industry standard, a code MUST be followed when it has been adopted into law in a specific geographical/political region or when it has been included in a contractual agreement. The National Electrical Code (NFPA-70) is an example of this type of standard. Every state in the United States adopted it to protect people from electrical hazards. Model codes, which are developed to become industry wide standards, are not enforceable until they are adopted by a jurisdiction. The International Building Code is an example of a model code.

Regulations - A regulation is a type of standard that has been mandated by law. Regulations specify legally obligated requirements that must be met under specific laws and implement general agency objectives. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Regulations are an example of this type of standard.

Corporate/Institutional Standards - Standards are instructions, specifications or measurements that serve as minimally accepted requirements for expected normal practices in a specific organization.

 

How do I identify which standards are needed for my project?

  • Identify which standards granting organizations produce standards for the topic you are searching before you start your search. Focus your searches in databases that contain standards from those organizations.
  • Search the standard number, title, and/or keywords of interest in the standards database(s). See the links in the Standards: Granting Organizations, Search Engines, and Vendors section.
  • Use parentheses to search you terms as a phrase. (tractor trailer -- "tractor trailer")
  • If you are not getting back the quality or quantity of results you desire consider using synonyms. (car -- automobile / semi -- tractor trailer).
  • If you are still not finding the standard that you need, search the title of the standard in WorldCat to see if another library owns it.
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